Thursday, January 23, 2020

Understanding Kissinger’s Actions Toward Chile Essay -- Foreign Policy

Understanding Kissinger’s Actions Toward Chile Can an individual influence foreign policy? Based upon the eight years that Henry Kissinger was the Secretary of State it is clear that an individual can (Starr 466). It has become apparent through recently released classified documents that Kissinger played a large role in allowing the brutal Pinochet dictatorship over Chile to take place and allowed massive human rights violations to continually occur during the Pinochet regime. What is continually being attempted to understand is why Kissinger acted as he did towards Chile. The goal of stopping the spread of communism to Latin America is obvious in Kissinger’s actions, but why allow Pinochet to continue to receive United States support while he breaks International Human Rights Laws (Kornbluh 5)? To understand Kissinger’s actions toward Chile it is necessary to analyze his background. Considering that he was born in Germany and fled to the United States to escape the Nazi’s, there most certainly was previous life experiences that contributed to his foreign policy beliefs (Crapol 260). As a politician, Kissinger gained an extraordinarily high level of popularity for a man of his position. Thus, his dealings with Chile may have been more of an effort to uphold his reputation than an eagerness to do what is best for Chile and the United States. Therefore, it can be considered that Kissinger’s strict realist view and constant attempt to create stability and order was derived from his past experiences as a Jewish Refugee and his actions as a Secretary of State may have been skewed by his desire to keep his popular status in the United States media and public (Starr 467 and 477; Crapol 260-265). Kissinger’s past experi... ...ton: Houghton Mifflin, 1957. Kornbluh, Peter. â€Å"Kissinger and Pinochet.† The Nation. 268. 12 (1999) p. 5. 1 March 2005. . Starr, Harvey. â€Å"The Kissinger Years: Studying Individuals and Foreign Policy.† International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 24, No. 4. (Dec., 1980), p. 465-496. 10 April 2005. . Walker, Stephen G. â€Å"The Interface between Beliefs and Behavior: Henry Kissinger's Operational Code and the Vietnam War.† The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 21, No. 1. (Mar., 1977), p. 129-168. 10 April 2005. .

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Don’t Shoot: A call for International Diplomacy Essay -- Essays Papers

Don’t Shoot: A call for International Diplomacy Worldwide terrorism became the central focus of the United States’ foreign policy following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. At that time, the world saw the obvious hatred that other countries hold toward the U.S. and the extreme danger that came with it. Our eyes were opened to foreign issues that many of us were not previously aware of. President Bush’s initial response to the new danger was to overtake and reform two regimes, Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as to eliminate Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. Instability still exists in these areas of the world, but there looms a much more immediate threat in the nuclear countries of Iran and North Korea. Said countries both possess histories of nuclear proliferation, which have recently become more threatening. Each country has violated treaties in regards to their nuclear pursuits and, presently, both countries are actively developing weapons of mass destruction. The United States has established a trend of forcefully instituting change in other countries where it sees fit, as in Afghanistan and Iraq. In the case of Iran and North Korea, such a policy is unnecessary at this time. There currently exists insufficient threat from either country to warrant an attack, so a preemptive strike would be disastrous and unnecessary. The only circumstances that necessitate physical force are those in which the United States and/or other nations are immediately and inevitably endangered. We do not possess the military or economic resources for another full-scale war front as most of our troops and funds have been exhausted in Afghanistan and Iraq (Schwenninger 17). The United States’ course of... ... 50-51. Coulter, Ann. Treason: Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2003. Forbes, Steve. â€Å"Ticking Bomb.† Forbes 6 Sep. 2004: 33. Gannon, Jeff. â€Å"Iraqi Leader Challenges Western Media Bias.† Talon News 28 Sep. 2004: 25-26. Hanson, Victor Davis. â€Å"Kill the insurgents. Stop Talking.† The New Republic. 7 June 2004: 13-14. Hirsch, Michael and John Barry. â€Å"Madmen, Rogues & Nukes.† Newsweek 11 Oct. 2004: 34-35. â€Å"Japanese official says North Korea holds nuclear weapons: report.† 17 Oct. 2004: n.pag. On-line. Internet. 18 Oct. 2004. Available WWW: http://news.yahoo.com. Scoblic, J. Peter. â€Å"As I Say: Bush v. Bush on North Korea.† The New Republic 4 Oct 2004: 11-13. â€Å"Will the US now attack Tehran?† New Statesman 27 Sep. 2004: 6. Zakaria, Fareed. â€Å"A Vision, and Little Else.† Newsweek 13 Sep 2004: 37.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Taking Advantage of People

Throughout history, religions have been created and still today continue to be created. Most people have a common faith that they have inherited from their ancestors; they have and always will practice their religion as long as it seems to be in their favor. Some people go to church to cleanse their conscious of the naughty things they’ve been doing and fear the wrath of their god. Others may have a lot of things going their way and they want to thank their faith in religion for these blessings. Other people might be in a situation where life has handed them hardly a morsel of luck or faith; they may also blame a god for their misfortune or stop believing in religion altogether. These people would be in a prime condition to find faith. Finding faith is a reason why religious studies and practices are so intricately different. People take what they have been told and they mix these views with their own personal life experiences to create an ideal trust in someone or something. Sometimes people can believe in someone and take their words as the words of god. To do this they have to trust and hold such a person in the highest respect. In return the person who is in supposed contact with God must value this trust and use it to spread their beliefs. This relationship usually works out quite nicely for the people in such a bond. They find a trust in each other and each gain the ability to use one another. In the 1930’s a relationship like this spawned in Detroit, Michigan. Wallace Fard, the leader of a new psuedo-Islamic religion, became acquainted with Robert Poole, a southern migrant with an already growing discontent of self status. Robert Poole saw a rope of faith hanging from Wallace Fard. He became his best friend and in time Fard taught Poole every detail of his Nation of Islam. Fard even declared himself Allah, or God, and disappeared, leaving Robert Poole with a new name and title that would make him the leader of the religious group. Poole’s new name became Elijah Muhammad, meaning the prophet messenger of Allah. He took the role as leader of what was left of the Nation of Islam and moved the headquarters to Chicago, IL. In Chicago, Muhammad set up Temple No. 2, igniting a spark of religious flame that continues to burn today. The Nation of Islam possesses characteristics like all other religions, holding the faith and continuing to gain support from both old and new Black Muslims (Encyclopedia of African American Culture). Just like every other religion, the Nation of Islam has doctrines. These doctrines were set down and enforced by Muhammad. A great portion of the Doctrines were copied directly from Orthodox Muslim tradition. Practices such as eating only one meal a day, praying five times a day to their sole god Allah, and reading their holy Koran daily are all a part of the Nation of Islam’s rituals. To add to this strict regiment, it was also necessary to separate one’s need for cosmetics, drugs, alcohol, and any other vices created by the white man. This scorn for the white man or â€Å"white devil† as Muhammad would have referred to them, is a profound emotion underlying the basics of his religion. It would be wise to note how much hate is tied to the Nation of Islam. This hate can be used as an avenue of gathering. It gives a nucleus of discussion and reflection that its members can all relate to. The members are found to be highly racist: they believe in a total separatism of all other cultures, specifically Caucasians. Only black men and women are welcomed. The current leader Louis Farrakhan follows Muhammad’s teachings to the word. He believes that Elijah Muhammad was the prophet of Allah and that all of his teachings were the words of Allah (Esquire). Elijah Muhammad held a tight grasp on his followers. He saw that no one in his organization was socially outcast. In fact, the practitioners of his faith were all law-abiding citizens that rid themselves of all debt. This quality was a genuine blessing in the eyes of most African Americans in the late 1900’s. It is highly respectable to not owe money to anyone; it shows a sign of competence in a person’s ability to provide for their family. The ability of Elijah Muhammad to reform broken men and women was an attractive power to a culture in America that had been waiting for an avenue out of the lives they were already stuck in. The separatist attitude of the Nation of Islam is a direct repercussion from the views of racist white supremacy groups. After admitting to yourself that this nation was founded on the ideas of rich white slave holders, you can understand the demeanor that these Black Muslims carry towards the white ace. Instead of fighting the discrimination they were receiving by pacifistic ways they chose instead to fight the social structure head on. Just like the racist groups that were making African Americans’ lives so hard, they too sought segregation. This belief comes from the stories of human history that Muhammad fed his followers. The story tells that in the beginning Allah created the black human race. This â€Å"superior† race of humans held all the power and knowledge to rule the world. Somehow a mad black scientist created the white race, a cruel and deceiving race. They then took the power from the black people by tricky and unjust ways. â€Å"God gave the white race the right to rule for 6,000 years. That rule is terminating†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (Muhammad, Elijah). Allah then granted them this power, allowing white men to rule the world for the next 6,000 years. According to the Nation of Islam this power transfer happened about 6,000 years ago. Now that the time had come for Allah to help the black race take back the power they deserved, Muhammad was preparing for war. This belief is where the Nation of Islam’s Muslims and the Orthodox Muslims differ. It also seems to be a magnetic force that ties the followers together with dignity. It would be appealing to anyone to be a part of a master race of humans. It is the same technique that created so many Nazi party followers of Hitler. Muhammad is plainly creating the belief in a hierarchy of races where the black man is on top. This position as ruler is a justifiable desire, especially considering the state of African Americans in America’s social structure halfway through the century. It would be a Godsend to be moved through such ranks of power and it was this miraculous transition of power that appealed to the minority culture. Elijah Muhammad created an avenue for African Americans to redeem themselves from the white prejudice by becoming a more respectable human. Besides Muhammad’s cries for black supremacy and a total separation from the United States, the man actually enhanced the quality of life of his followers (Newsweek). In 1940, Elijah Muhammad was arrested for draft evasion. He ironically pled that his religion kept him from fighting the war. His time spent in jail turned out to be a pivotal point in his ability to hold a tight grip on the faith of his followers. In jail he acquired a number of converts. In the 1940’s prisons were full of convicts that were full of hate for the white man, who had imprisoned them under his white laws. It was simple for Muhammad to turn the anger of these convicts into hope. He filled the men in jail with a pride in their heritage and encouraged them to express their pride to the outside world. His most famous convert was a man named Malcolm X. Beyond Malcolm X there were many other convicts that became peaceful, law abiding citizens. Muhammad took junkies and healed them of their habit. His words gave hope to a community that has been down-trodden since it arrived over 200 years ago. A driving will and determination flowed from him into the characteristics of other Black Muslims. The Black Muslims created an empire that Elijah Muhammad once controlled (Time). The Nation of Islam has grown proportionally well since its origin in the early twentieth century. Today it is led by a man named Louis Farrakhan. â€Å"When he called the African-American community to participate in a â€Å"Million Man March† on Washington, D. C. , 400,000 responded—twice the number who walked with Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963. Unlike Dr. King, everything Farrakhan said was dedicated to Allah. † (Staff) The numbers of members of the Nation of Islam has not declined, but it is not as powerful of a presence as it used to be when Muhammad was alive. Louis Farrakhan believes that Elijah Muhammad is alive and well on an alien ship that he has said he has visited. It is often noted that the police were threatened by the quality of people that were Black Muslims. They said it made them feel uncomfortable because these citizens were all flawlessly law abiding. They held the highest moral standard and were presentable for any occasion. This power to impress society with your presence was another drawing force for new recruits. It seems that most any person would want to feel valued and respected. The Nation of Islam was offering this in exchange for a complete conformity to their beliefs. The inner social structure of the Nation of Islam was very self aware and efficient. The members all shared a close family bond to one another. This feeling of belonging is a natural human desire. The men and women of the organization were all very welcoming toward any prospective member. An alliance in a world that looks to be out to ruin you is a must. The Nation of Islam attracted idolized men such as Muhammad Ali, a world famous boxing champion. Having professional role models in your religion is a strong reinforcement that you have made the right decision. In life humans look to each other to figure out what they are doing. This ricochet of dependability is one reason why we have clubs and organizations. People get together and look for a common ground on which they can stand. Elijah Muhammad gave African Americans the common platform of racism to stand on. It was easy for them to reach this common ground because this is the same platform that countless white Americans had been espousing from the moment the Africans arrived. Elijah Muhammad had reversed the effects of racism to create a unifying force that struggling black men and women could reach for. He provided an opportunity to take a life that looked meekly respectable and turn it in to a self sufficient unit of hope. He turned prison convicts into upright citizens. Muhammad convinced drug addicts to give up their vices in the name of Allah. He helped people get their finances back on track. In his struggle to create his dream of unified separate black nation, Muhammad had found a way to turn struggling bums into men. Although Elijah Muhammad is dead today, his legacy still continues to thrive under the leadership of Louis Farrakhan. It is not an Orthodox Muslim religion but it still values the cleanliness and self improving values of the Muslim faith. The Nation of Islam is actually a sharp mixture of all religions tied together, becoming separate from any of the religions it is based off of. It is fresh starting ground for people who have been looking for a new faith that seems to be headed in their direction. Unlike Christianity, Buddhism, or Mohammedanism, Black Muslims have the belief that they are a special breed of human that is designed to rule the world one day. Once its members are convinced of this prophet it is easily understandable that they would aspire to belong to such an organization. It is empowering to be told that you are a part of the master race and that in a short time you will be in direct contact with your creator, who will show you the one avenue to providence personally. No other mainstream religion preaches a life that is in any way superior to another man’s, they all share a bond of unifying equality. It is easy to see that the so-called equality that the African Americans have been experiencing is not quite equal at all. This gives rise to a desire to be on top, a desire conveniently supplied by Elijah Muhammad. When analyzing the history of religion it is acceptable to view them all as a righteous path to self-improvement. The Nation of Islam contained all the necessary functions to make its members stand out and shine in a society that had constantly dulled the significance of the African American. Among many reasons, the Nation of Islam was a source of hope to struggling men and women with the desire to better their position in life. The Nation of Islam created a system that was bound to be self sufficient. â€Å"Islam holds that all humans are born with a predisposition to Islam; it is part of their innate nature. The human problem is thus the forgetting of one’s inborn tendency to follow Allah†. (Fisher, Paul) This unexplainable phenomena graced the Nation of Islam with a little bit of weight to throw around. It also supplied a strong presence that still impacts the religious decisions of Americans today (Islam). The Nation of Islam was a power because of its numbers. It had the ability to draw crowds and keep them. Something in the message that Elijah Muhammad carried seemed to pull African Americans into his following. He had found what people wanted to hear. He used racism to strike an angry chord of passion in his fellow Black Muslims. This passion gave him the driving power to unify his people and start a religion that cannot be denied credit for its ability to improve life. The basic tenants of this religion are transposable to a correct way of living. All aspects of their life seem to be in control, making it a model religion to follow. It is this control that has made the Nation of Islam flourish. Elijah Muhammad controlled his followers and unified their cries for a better life. The control he kept was valued by onlookers hoping that they could have such control over their own lives. This undercurrent of faith, although marred by racism and separatism beliefs, is powerful enough to continue attracting numbers of followers in the hope to make their lives better.

Monday, January 13, 2020

History Context of China’s Modern History

History is vital in the development of a country. China is one of the countries with a rich account of historical events. These include the Chinese Civil War, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, and Great Famine. I am fascinated by China’s Great Famine––largest ever recorded famine in human history––that transpired between 1959 and 1961. The famine had caused the death of about 30 million Chinese citizens due to extreme starvation. Encyclopedia of Population describes the famine as â€Å"massive institutional and policy changes which accompanied the Great Leap Forward were the key factors in the famine. † Mao Zedong, a distinguished Chinese leader, had this wild dream to make China’s economy soar quickly. He planned to surpass Britain’s achievement on iron and steel production. So he ordered millions of peasants to join the iron and steel production workforce instead of working in their fields. My grandfather, who had experienced that period said, â€Å"I was ordered to mine local deposits of iron ore and limestone while my brother was ordered to smelt metal instead of farming. † My grandfather said that people then were eating tree peels and roots. Those efforts toward industrialization resulted to decreased agricultural activities that eventually triggered the spread of famine.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Genocide in Rwanda Essay - 1910 Words

Genocide is â€Å"the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, ethnic, political, or cultural group†. In Rwanda for example, the Hutu-led government embraced a new program that called for the country’s Hutu people to murder anyone that was a Tutsi (Gourevitch, 6). This new policy of one ethnic group (Hutu) that was called upon to murder another ethnic group (Tutsi) occurred during April through June of 1994 and resulted in the genocide of approximately 800,000 innocent people that even included women and children of all ages. In this paper I will first analyze the origins/historical context regarding the discontent amongst the Hutu and Tutsi people as well as the historical context as to why major players in the international†¦show more content†¦The Belgians also decreed that Tutsis should be the only ones in power and thus removed Hutus from positions of power and excluded them from higher education (Arraras). â€Å"By assuring the Tutsis’ monopoly of power the Belgians set the stage for future conflict in Rwanda† (Arraras). The Tutsis were enjoying their status as being superior to the Hutus but all that changed in 1959 with the Hutu revolution and so in 1960 and 1961 the Hutus won the elections. Since then, ethnic tensions had always been brewing between the Hutus and the Tutsis. However the tensions escalated when Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down above Kigali airport on April 6, 1994. I consider this to be a form of political violence because someone or a group that opposed this President which represented only the political interests as well as the viability of the Hutus had to be killed in order for another group possibly the Tutsis to fill the vacuum of power left by the Hutu president. The Hutus blamed the assassination of their president on the Tutsis and in turn sparked an all out massacre waged on to the Tutsi people. Although it is sometimes viewed that major players in t he international community did not get involved in the conflict between the Hutus and the Tutsis I argue that in some form or fashion they did. For example, prior to the genocide of 1994 the United States had formed an alliance with the Tutsis, they even gave Paul Kagame, co-founder of theShow MoreRelatedRwanda Genocide892 Words   |  4 Pages November 12, 2013 MAHG 5028 Religion and Genocide: Rittner Conversation Starter #12 Rwandan Genocide The Angels Have Left Us by Hugh McCullum, discusses the African tragedy that took place in Rwanda, which resulted in the murder of over one million victims. The Rwanda genocide was between two groups, the Hutu and the Tutsi. Hutu were considered to be the natives and indigenous to the land, where Tutsi were considered to be the non-native settlers who were non indigenous. ThroughRead MoreThe Genocide Of Rwanda Genocide2044 Words   |  9 Pages It is estimated and recorded that, the 1994 Rwanda genocide, resulted to over 800,000 to a million deaths of the Tutsis that where brutally eliminated and murdered. This figure includes men, women and children who constitute three-quarter of the entire Tutsi population and 20% of Rwanda population at large. Rwanda Genocide generated a lot of criticism especially the role of France, the lip service attitude that resulted to the late intervention of the international community after the endRead MoreThe Genocide in Rwanda 1001 Words   |  5 PagesPaul Kagame, the President of Rwanda, once quoted that, â€Å"When we are unified, working together, no challenge is insurmountable† (Arnlaugsdottir). His quote holds meaning and truth as within the past twenty years, Rwanda has worked miraculously to rebuild and reunite the country that was left disheveled by social conflict and genocide. There are many factors that have contributed to the reconstruction of Rwanda, including international assistance, gacaca courts and International Criminal TribunalRead MoreThe Rwanda Genocide808 Words   |  3 PagesApril 7, 1994 marked the beginning of one hundred days of massacre that left over 800,000 thousand dead and Rwanda divided by a scare that to this day they are trying to heal. The source of this internal struggle can be traced back to the segregation and favoritism established by Belgium when they received Rwanda after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1918. At the time the Rwandan population was 14% Tuts i, 1%Twa, and 85% Hutus; the Belgian’s showed preferential treatment to the Tutsi, whoRead MoreThe Genocide Of The Rwanda Essay2065 Words   |  9 Pages In 1994, Rwanda was a situation of hatred and revenge tailored by European influence that mixed together to form the recipe for Genocide. Classical control of third world nations and exploitation by the west is nothing new. In Africa, the direction of the government is often manipulated by countries that have had historical control over them. The Genocide of Rwanda was a transfer of position that placed the Hutu people in a seat of power over the former rulers, which were the Tutsis elite. ThisRead MoreThe Genocide Of Rwanda s Genocide1624 Words   |  7 PagesThe Genocide in Rwanda INTRODUCTION Genocides happen when ethnic divisions become apparent. Many times, these ethnic divisions were due to colonization from people of different race. These cases are especially true in Africa when Europeans colonized their territory, with clear racial divisions between them (Gavin). These genocides go on because of nations acting on ignorance and refusing to help out the nations in turmoil, allowing the genocides to continue, without wasting their own resources.Read MoreThe Rwanda Genocide Essay1113 Words   |  5 Pagesthe characteristics of the Rwanda Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust. The Rwanda Genocide targeted the Tutsis because of their ethnicity, while the Holocaust targeted the Jews because of their ethnicity and religion. To really understand the Rwandan Genocide and the Final Solution, one must understand the background of the two exterminated peoples. The Tutsis are an ethnic group that resides in the African Great Lakes region. During the Europeans settlements in Rwanda, the colonists need an identifierRead MoreThe Holocaust And The Rwanda Genocide1629 Words   |  7 PagesThe mind of a survivor of genocide can be various, violent, confused, or blank, it can scar the mind indefinitely or not. Not only are the conductors of the kill-spree are scary, but even the victims can be just as terrifying. Two examples of genocide are the Holocaust and the Rwanda Genocide, both of which gives off long ranges of psychological effects on the mind of those who survive. Survivors struggle through the tragic events with the hope they would soon find and be with their loved ones. SoRead MoreChristianity and Genocide in Rwanda800 Words   |  4 Pages Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda by Timothy Longman discusse s the roles of the churches in Rwanda and how their influence might have been able to alter the outcome of the genocide. He discusses the rise of Juvenal Habyarimana in politics with his Catholic background, church and state relations, and obedience to political authority. His slogan â€Å"Peace, Unity, and Development† were his political plans for Rwanda. On April 6, 1994, president Juvenal Habyarimana’s plane was shot down marking the beginningRead MoreHistory Of Rwanda And The Genocide1579 Words   |  7 PagesHISTORY OF RWANDA AND THE GENOCIDE It is believed that the Hutu and the Tutsi were originally one community who shared some value culture and even religion until the colonialist announced their arrival. Rwanda has experienced a disturbing and prolonged cycle of violent conflict since 1959. The conflict which has been characteristically political and socio-economic in nature has played out mainly on the basis of ethnicity and regionalism. It was first German and Belgium colonialism that created

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Notions of Class in the Harry Potter Novels

Sample details Pages: 26 Words: 7675 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Tags: Harry Potter Essay Did you like this example? The world in which one lives today is one that is not different from the past in many aspects. Though there have been several changes in society, there are still several things that remain the same. Human lifestyle undoubtedly has changed along with the way thatpeople think. However, memories and records of events and the like arenot always forgotten. People may not forget things easily, and somemake it a point to hang on to memories and even grudges. Historicevents may be recorded solely for the purpose of preserving thoughts ofthe world so that man, in time to come, would have a chance of knowinghis roots. Through history, one important thing that has come to mans attentionis the existence of inequalities through time. Inequalities have alwaysexisted, and these have always been a major source of conflict. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Notions of Class in the Harry Potter Novels | English Literature Dissertation" essay for you Create order Conflict has always been known man, and has never been a strangerto man at any point in time. This is not to say that wars always ragedacross the earth, but certainly does mean that atrocities and the likealways existed. The hostilities and crime that one witnesses today ishardly different from the crimes that were committed in the past. Theonly thing that makes it much more different to what it was in the pastis that there is technology on ones side today. Instead of this beingof greater help to man today, it has resulted in much more death anddestruction, all starting from inequalities in resources. Theoristslike Karl Marx and Stephen Greenblatt are individuals that would beable to shed greater light on the disharmony in society. Their views onsocial living also help one to understand the way that things were andare today, and how similar conflicts may be through time . Domination could take almost any form, and this would depend on whatkind of resources one class has. If one has economic resources, it ispossible to dominate others extensively. In Marxist terms, dominationis usually because the resources a class has in hand. If a class haseconomic resources, it has greater strength and can dominate others. Ifthe resources have limited value, they cannot dominate all that much.In addition to the possession of resources that causes conflict, thereis also something known as a sense of belonging. If a person feels thatanother is not of his status or does not speak the language that s/hedoes, conflict might arise. However, Differences of habit and languageare nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts are open. Aside from the differences in resources and the conflict that takesplace because of a difference in resources, Marxism has other values.It is a theory that explains social change, which is why it can beapplied to various situations of conflict. The reason for this is thatthere always has to be a reason for conflict, and this refers todifferences in resources of strengths . Marxism being a macro-sociological theory is one that can also apply tosmaller setups. This means that it can apply to communities as welleven though a community is only a part of a larger society. However,thismakes sense because of the fact that it also applies to a wholestate that itself a smaller part of a global environment . Being a theory that can be used to see significance in communities, itis one that can be applied to the magicians community in Harry PotterNovels by J.K Rowling. The community in Harry Potter Novels is perfectfor implementing Marxist theory. This is because of the fact that thereis existence of segregation, class/group conflict, oppression, slavery,Prejudice, etc. existing in the community. It is all these factors thatexpose the importance of Marxist theory and the way that communities gothrough changes during conflict. The stages in a conflict are alsoclearly visible as one reads through the Harry Potter books. Thesestages are similar to Marxist explanations, and are also in sync withsocial changes that occur because of conflicts . In addition to the class conflict that would occur because of controlover resources or magical powers, there is also the case of descent.Descent or heritage is an issue in Harry Potter stories as well becausethose who belong to an original group are believed to be rightful heirsand have authorized control. This is something that is explained byother theories as well, but Marxism primarily considers these to bebecause of beliefs and doctrines that are embedded in peoples minds.They are also most likely to occur because of the control that peoplebelieve they are entitled to when they are of original or pure descent. This is precisely the case wit the pure bloods that think they arerightful owners of magic. The purebloods assumed that they have therights to magic and only they should be allowed to study at the schoolof magic. They wanted the half bloods and the mudbloods ousted.However, since they could not do it through fair means they resorted toother means. At various stages of the w hole story of Harry Pottersexperience this is demonstrated. Not only is Harry Potter subject totheir unfair means but so are many innocent people. The pure bloods arewilling to go to any length to dominate and gain control over allothers. They want to gain control in the wider society by first takingover the magic school and proving themselves as rightful owners ofmagic. They are inbred and come from generations of practice. AlbusDumbledore asserts: You place too much importance on the so-calledpurity of blood! You fail to recognize that it matters not whatsomeone is born, but what they grow to be! Undoubtedly, they may possess exceptional traits and ability to performspells, but it may also be said that they have mastered all thisthrough immense practice. As opposed to this, Harry Potter is anindividual who is of half wizard descent. He still has more abilitiesthan most other wizards of pure descent. He has the ability to applymagical spells at will even though he was warned in the initial stagesthat it could prove dangerous for him. He was told that afterperforming magic for the first time, it is Natural to want a bitmore. He was told that he cant start flying cars to try and gethimself noticed (Chapter 6, p. 91). The best part about Harry Potters character is that he is a wizard ora young wizard with immense skill. He does not use his magicalstrengths unless he really needs to. He had been warned against usingmagical spells, but also preferred to use commonsense to work his waythrough situations. It may be asserted that Harry Potter was a clevermagician who used his magical capabilities to reinforce his efforts. Describing magical situations in a community of wizards and using amacro-sociological theory to back it up, may seem odd. However, itappears that the discrimination between different groups or classes isbest described through this theory. The manner in which individuals inthis story behave is interesting and fits well into such a theory. Considering Roald Dahls The Witches, it can also be asserted thatMarxism fits into it too. This is because there are also notions ofgroups or class in this story. There is also existence of oppressors.These oppressors are the ones that cause the disharmony; they try toget rid of children, and people in general cannot detect them livingalong with them in society. They look like normal ladies and have everygeneral character that women have, and no one would even imagine thatthere are some of the wickedest women living right beside them. Since class distinction is an important part of Marxist theory, it isworth asserting that Harry Potter has no shortage of Marxist notions.This can be observed in the fact that class distinction is quite open.The manner in which classification takes place in Harry Potter and thePhilosophers Stone is exceptional. This is typically visible whenthey magicians are categorized and placed in traditional houses. Eachmagician is placed in a traditional house according to his or hercapability or status. An example of this is the manner in which Harryis placed in the house of Gryffindor. He is a hero and is placed herewhile other magicians such as Malfoy, are placed in Slytherin. Thoughit may be argued that this is highly unlike a Marxist practice becauseof the inequality, it can be said that it is actually very much in syncwith Marxist theory. This is because of the fact that Marxism holdsthat each one has particular capabilities that could be put to use.Marxism emphasizes on the notion: from each one according to hiscapability, and to each one according to his need (Marx Engels,1848). In the above example, it is obvious that the emphasis is more onthe capability of the individual, which is why each of thecharacterized are placed in separate houses. In this kind of segregation, there are particular advantages as well asdisadvantages. This refers to the fact that being segregated couldcause unity in some ways and further disintegration in others. InHarry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, both these notions arevisible clearly. Unity is demonstrated through the recognition ofmorals in each character. The characters recognize certain qualities ineach other and they are drawn closer; Harry, Ron and Hermione stand outas examples. In contrast to this, it can also be observed that thereare instances where some characters are repulsed. It is through the unity that is created by the three friends at themagic school that a plot has been detected to steal the PhilosophersStone. Harry, Ron and Hermione work together to discover a culprit atthe top level. It turns out that one of the teachers is a suspect. Thework that the three friends put in to discover the suspect is anexample of the way that the people in a state can work towards foilinga treacherous attempt. This part of the story also reflects the natureof the Marxist state that is more than likely to pull down a leader orany official that puts them at risk. The people are the ones with powerand they may use it collectively to achieve a goal. Though there may beother individuals against them, they may still go ahead with what theybelieve in. The Philosophers Stone is like the importance of a state, and if anyone is trying to steal something that belongs to the state they need tobe stopped. The situation can be deadly, which is why it may also beadventurous. After all, to the well-organized mind, death is but thenext great adventure . This is precisely what Harry and his friends set out to do after theyhave strong suspicions on particular people. However, their earliersuspicions were not accurate as Harry discovers that he has to facesomeone other than Snape. One can have As much money and life as youcould want! The two things most human beings would choose above all -the trouble is, humans, even if they are magicians, do have a knackof choosing precisely those things that are worst for them . In order to prevent the Philosophers Stone from being stolen, Harryand his friends have to go after the stone themselves. This meant thatthey had to get in through the guards to make sure the Stone would notbe stolen away. At this point in the story, it is specificallymentioned that Harry and his friends had to pull their strengthstogether in order to get where they reached. Harry and his friends manage to do this quite successfully until Harryhas to go in alone after the Stone. In doing this, he is faced withProfessor Quirrell. Being his crafty self like many politicians thatwant to benefit the most, Professor Quirrell tries to use Harry to getto the stone. He knew that Harry would be able to get through, and soknew it would be the best way. However, the professor remainsunsuccessful in his attempt. Quirrell was killed and Voldemortdefeated. This defeat and death stands for the necessity of conflict tobring peace and restoration to a state. The characters defeated standfor those that interfere with the relatively peaceful system in place.Harry and his friends stand for those that are willing to risk all thatis theirs in order to do what is right. Harry in particulardemonstrates that he is the people of a state because of the fact thathe was ready to lay down his life for everyone. He knew that he was theonly one capable of completing the task, and so we nt into a dangeroussituation all by himself. However, he emerged victorious and thus livedup to being a hero. Though Harry did a splendid amount of heroic work single-handedly, itcannot be forgotten that he could not have done it all by himself.Towards the end of the adventure, this is exposed considerably throughthe points scored in all the efforts. Gryffindor earns one hundred andsixty points through the collective efforts of Harry, Ron and Hermione.However, an extra ten points were earned because of Nevilles effortsto stop the three from going to the Philosophers Stone. It is obvious that trying to stop Harry and his friends from goingthrough the defenses of the guards would be seen as a good act. Quitenaturally, Harrys actions as ring leader were not the mostappropriate; the school of magic may not have been pleased about this,and so placed a ban on him from using magic for the rest of the summer.However, he kept this ban a secret so that no one would take advantageof him. Using magic could not be kept a secret, but not using it couldbe kept a secret. Looking at the practice of magic in the literaturepublished today, there are several religious groups that are againstthe use of magic and witchcraft in Harry potter stories. This has beenthe case so much so that religious groups have moved to have the seriesbanned. However, this is an unlikely thing to happen, as the book isfiction; something that is far from reality. However, in comparing thenotions in this series with Marxist literature, it can also be saidthat there are people who scrutinize it (M arxist Literature) as well,terming it all as evil and a social disease that aims at overturningother just forms of governance. The fears are more real in this sense,but pertinent literature can hardly be banned from publication . Marxist literature is known to focus on many different aspects ofsocietal living; it is a political theory and often serves as a meansof scrutinizing state operations. One of the main things that ittargets is injustice. It emphasizes on the need to get rid the root ofinjustice in society. In Marxist notions, there are ways of targetingand getting rid of injustice. The words mentioned earlier about Marxismcan aptly be applied here as well: to each one according to his needs(Marx Engels, 1848). These words comprehensively overruleinjustice, but of course are not sufficient to make sure that injusticedoes not occur. Injustice still occurs in its various forms, anddiscrimination towards individuals belonging to particular origins isone of the most well known of its forms. Discrimination is alsosomething that is a major consideration in Harry Potter and thechamber of secrets. Basically the discrimination is generalized at all magicians lower thanpure blood wizards. In Harry Potter and the Chamber of SecretsHarry is discriminated by Malfoy because Harry is not a pure bloodwizard. In contrast to this story talking about discrimination andmaking of differences between wizards, there is a great deal that onecan learn from it. Tolerance is one of the major teachings in thisstory. Individuals of all ages can learn from tolerance, no matter whattheir backgrounds are. Marxist theory also holds fast to tolerance asopposed to its notions of conflict. People living in a society may havedifferences, but they still have to live together. Provided that thedifferences are not too magnified, there is no reason why they cannotlive together. In extreme cases, they may need to clash before peace isestablished, but first tolerance is preferred. Conflict is actually thelast option; when there is no other way out, conflict is resorted to.The intensity of the conflict can be ob served in the following lineswhen Arthur Weasley says: Never trust anything that can think foritself if you cant see where it keeps its brain . Tolerance in the Community: In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, tolerance in the communityis of great importance. If tolerance is non existent, there would be nocommunity. However, there are some individuals that want to causedisharmony even if their intentions seem logical. In the story, SalazarSlytherin wants to get rid of all those that are different andestablish a community that is pure; he wants to get rid of themudbloods, or wizards that do not have any magical ancestors. Here,one can see that is a definite distinction between the two classes, andthere is also a definite demeaning tone and term being used againstthose that were not pure magicians . Quite obviously, there was aresponse from those who were being looked down upon. They would defendthemselves if attacked or harmed in any way. This would be legitimatein the sense that all members in a society are entitled to equalrights, and these are natural rights. The targeted class might feel theneed to resist hostilities or even launch attacks. Th is conflict isnothing unknown to Marxism; in fact, class conflict is normal for peaceto be achieved. Particularly, it must be noted that class conflict inHarry Potter and the Chamber of secrets is also similar to Marxistdescription because of the class conflict existing between two classes.Typically, this was the Quidditch game between Gryffindor andSlytherin. The Gryffindor and Slytherin represent the two classes inconflict. According to Marxism there are no other classes; there is just aconflict between to very distinctive classes in society because of thedifferences in resources . Here, one can observe that the classconflict or group conflict in Harry Potter exists between those thathave more magical power and those that do not. Also, those that havemore power are ones that claim to have purer heritage. They believethat they can purify their community by getting rid of those withoutsuch heritage. Purifying the community is something that is out of Marxist views; itis something that does not pertain to the theory. Though there havebeen instances in the past that may be used as examples of purifyingcommunities and races, none can be blamed on Marxism. Purification ofraces and communities is something that has been the result ofDarwinian thought. However, since these notions were integrated withso-called socialist strategies, Marxism is largely blamed for heinousevents in history . In Harry Potter, the purification that Salazar Slytherin intendsactually goes to show that these ideas are opposed to peace. Peace canonly attained by getting rid of such prejudices. The only way to get ofthese prejudices is to change the way that the dominating class thinksand acts or to have a direct and open conflict to demolish it. Coming back to the manner in which Harry and Hermione are both demeanedbecause of their heritage, Harrys is only half of what the pure bloodswere. Both Hermiones parents were not magicians as well. This meansthat both friends were not pure magicians by blood. However, they werepretty good at whatever they did; there magic was far better and moreeffective than Malfoys who was a pure blood. Here again there can be aMarxist comparison. This is because of the fact that Harrys andHermiones characters demonstrate the fact that all individuals nomatter what their heritage have the ability to perform in any art; allindividuals are able to do just as well as any other individuals. Marxism holds that all people in a community have the ability towork and be as productive as any other individual. Though there areindividuals with specialized skills who can be more productive in termsof quality, other individuals should not be demeaned or underestimated. However, this is what Malfoy does; he and his lot aredescribed as oversized, strange-looking, mean and unintelligent, butthey are still pure bloods coming from generations of pure blood. Theyhave not much in their favor, and so, it is very important for them tobe pure. They have worked for generations to be purebloods at thecost of losing everything else. This is perhaps the reason why they areso hung up on remaining in control and excluding all those that aredifferent to them. Perhaps they could not stand anyone having magical[powers and not being pure bloods. However, the problem for them wasthat Harry and Hermione were really good at their magic even thoughthey were not pure bloods . Observing the manner in which the pure blood wizards treated themudbloods, one can say that there already are already two classes inconflict. However, the mudbloods are those that are targeted, andwithin a broad category of those that dominate them are the pure bloodwizards along with others. These others include people such as theDursleys, who virtually fear magic. They are the ones that try to avoidmagic and had kept Harry away from these practices that were rightfullyhis own. The Dursleys serve as a group of people in the category ofthose that oppress the mudbloods even though they are not exactly onthe same side of the pure blood wizards. However, the fact is that,anyone or group that opposes or oppresses the mudbloods areautomatically considered to be in one broad category. This is similarto the manner in which all those who oppose or oppress the proletarianare considered to be one group or class. As opposed to the class conflict that is clearly visible in Harry{Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Marxist theory has it that for acommunity to survive there is need for tolerance to be practiced. Iftolerance is not a strength in a community, at any point in future, acommunity is liable to fall apart or become a victim of disharmony. A community should be strong enough in its bonds in order to preventdisharmony. It should tolerance and other qualities at its center sothat its community members can rely on it. Speaking of a community as awhole, in Harry Potter could not have been a hero on his own. He neededother individuals to support his role and cause too. Without them, hecould not be successful and would never have been recognized as a hero. Harry also has individual traits as well that are required of a hero.He is one that depends on the moment for taking decisions thatultimately define his success. Harry uses each moment intelligently andapplies common sense knowledge to situations. He does not think withhis magical powers. He instead, uses his magical abilities to reinforcehis decisions. He does not think with magic or with power. This isreflected in Marxist theory as well, as individuals and governingbodies or a state or even a community need to think logically and notwith the power they have in their hands. Social living is given a lotof importance in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, which is whyHarry maybe used as an important example. He is a community member. Heis one that is oppressed by those that are in a position to oppresshim, but he does not give in. He knows better because he can think anddoes not abuse his magical power. This is something important and infact is close to utopia in Marxism. Being h onest and having the abilityto control ones power and authority is a quality that many do nothave . Just like the legal system in Marxism is taken into considerationso is it done in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. The systemof governance in place is most important to consider. This is becauseof the fact that it is the foundation of actions to be carried out whendealing with millions of people in a country. If there is injustice inthe legal system, it needs to be dealt with accordingly. An example ofinjustice in the legal system is reflected I the way that Lucius andMalfoy deal with those that make mistakes. Their decisions are severeand harsh, and in most cases are unnecessary. Lucius and Malfoy represent the harsh hand of the law. In many casesrecorded in history there have been legal systems that have practicedharsh treatment of their people and little was done. However, Marxistideals do not agree with this even though rulers may have misusedtenets of Marxism. Injustice of the kind that Lucius and Malfoy carriedout cannot be tolerated. The Social set up is such that it allows all individuals to provethemselves. They may do sop as individuals or as a group. The Quidditchis believed to be a social indicator that can reveal the wayindividuals are. This is possible because it allows a competitionbetween two sides, Gryffindor and Slytherin. The integrity of the twosides is measured in terms of the strategies they use. Each of themwants to emerge as the winner and earn recognition through theirpowers. However, the serious conflict is that the Slytherin use unfairmeans to prove themselves even though they are pure bloods. TheGryffindor on the other hand are not necessarily pure in terms ofmagical power heritage; they are however, effective, and are evenbelieved to be more powerful than their opponents. The Quidditch also serves as an environment of its own kind becauseof the fact that it has the ability to observe individuals as thoughthey are in another environment altogether. Through the Quidditch a lotcan be revealed about an individuals real life intentions; it can beused to predict the lengths to which that individuals may go in orderto win or prove themselves. On the parts of both competitors,Gryffindor and Slytherin, it can be observed that they have tried hardto prove themselves the best way they know how. In this process, agreat deal has been revealed about the Marxist notions involved in theoverall set up. Something that reinforces Marxist notions, especially with theoppressed magicians, is the fact that they are concerned about thosethat are enslaved. They understand the plight of those enslaved andknow that their condition is perhaps worse than their own. Beingoppressed is one thing because at least the oppressed like Harry andHermione have the power to fight back. With the elves, there is hardlya chance of fighting back, as they have nothing to fight with and haveno special magical powers. It is this concern for the enslaved that istypical of individuals among the proletarian. This is an attitude thathas the power to bring people together and oppose oppression by thedominant ones. The slaves in Harry Potter are individuals that are kept for freelabor for the wicked wizarding families. The way that these elves aretreated depends on the mercy the wizards have for them, and since theyhave enslaved them it is obvious what kind of mercy they have shown them. Hermione has learned much from this enslavement and knows that this isnot far from the way that other good and bad wizards have experiencedat the hands of Lord Voldemort. Hermione then works throughout the bookto liberate the oppressed individuals. Some of those enslaved were madeso by physically restricting them to particular areas or by placingthem under a curse or spell. In view of the way that they wereenslaved, Marxist views would reveal that individuals in society canalso be enslaved in similar ways. The physical way of course ispossible through keeping a person in captivity or even abusingpolitical power to torment individuals. The alternative means ofenslaving a person through a curse could refer to the way that anindividual may be placed under bonds, contracts and the like. Peopleoften take advantage of individuals who fail to fulfill agreementsunder bonds and contracts, and they may subject them to blackmail orcompel them to serve their demands. Just like the wizards may no t havebeen able to do much under the Imperius curse, individuals cannot domuch after being placed under a bond. People with the power to enslave others and control them in this waygradually can take control of a lot of people. Politicians have thepower to do this when they are ion power and create particular decreesthat compel the people in a country to act accordingly. Getting peopleto act according to the demands of a ruler is also enslavement. Thesame thing is in effect in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Thewords mentioned in this book that say exactly what one should knowabout a mans behavior towards others are as follows: If you want toknow what a mans like, take a good look at how he treats hisinferiors, not his equals . These are precise words and ones that saya lot about class difference and individual attitude in view of apersons social position. However, the intention that Voldemort had wasto get all the slaves together and then get rid of them so that therewould be almost a nation of pure bloods. This sounds very familiar;history rings a bell here, and one is compelled to consi der the SecondWorld War in which the Germans had attempted and succeeded at doingthis to some extent. However, this is something is opposed to Marxisttheory because of the fact that Marxism does not hold with purifying acommunity through enslavement and other similar practices. Though it has been blamed for what happened in the Second World War,Marxism promotes diversity. Again here one of its tenets may beconsidered as it was earlier: to each one according to his need, andfrom each one according to his capability . These words automaticallyclear Marxism, promoting the appreciation of diversity in society.Establishing a pure race is no where within the tenets of Marxismbecause it is a theory that primarily focuses on the value of humanlife and effort . This human life and effort cannot be compared orcompensated for economically; it cannot be sold as a commodity, andshould not be sold as such. Instead, the value of human life and effortis so high that it should be cared for in such a way that the stateappreciates it through its entire existence. This is particularly thereason why this theory does not believe in the accumulation of personalassets; it is more focused on state-provided care in order to maintainpower that is distributed among the people. When power rests with thestate, no individual a group can rise up easily and take control ofothers with shortage of resources or power. In Harry Potter and theGoblet of Fire, this is what causes the problem in the magicianscommunity; a handful of magicians manage to take control of othersthrough their crafty ways and gain more and more control. There was nopoint in worrying yet. what would come, would come and he wouldhave to meet it when it did . It is through brave and selfless effortsthat Harry manages to overturn these efforts. Harry is not justinterested in saving the community nor is he totally against wrongdoings, but h e is keen on opposing domination. He becomes a herobecause he has one aim and that is to protect what was important toeveryone primarily. He wanted to protect the Philosophers Stone andalso confront the evil magicians. However, it is these efforts thatbuild up a community connectedness. In his efforts he had to seek helpfrom those he could. Without his friends by his side, Harry might nothave been able to get to the Philosophers Stone. In the Triwizard Tournament as well, Harry is not alone. Hagrid andMoody had helped him in getting him past the dragon. Also, Cedric andDobby had helped him further when they helped him decrypt the goldenegg; this enabled Harry to rescue the underwater victims. While trying to figure out what Harry may have done single-handedly,there is apparently little to go on. This even includes Harry gettingthrough the maze; he would not have been able to get through had it notbeen for the protective charms created by his wands connection withVoldemorts wand. Trouble for Voldemort was inevitable. Its a strangething, but when you are dreading something, and would give anything toslow down time, it has a disobliging habit of speeding up . Harry was also under the protection of his parents sacrifice. Harryalways thought about his parents; he also thought about his father .He also thought about his fathers three oldest friends: Moony,Wormtail, Padfoot, and Prongs (Chapter 21, p. 407) His parents sacrifice was the thing that kept him alive. Therefore,whenever he is apparently cornered, he has a way out. Harry only needsto apply himself; his basic groundwork and skill help him out, andreinforcing his skill is the protection he is under. This does not meanthat Harry is not brave because he is certainly courageous. His courageis observed when he goes before the wicked magicians alone. However,Harry is aware of the help that he gets, and makes it known too becausehe openly encourages Hagrid to start teaching again. He also tellsCedric about the dragon. This means that Harry is aware of eachpersons role and values a connected effort. Informing those who helpedhim about what they should and can do exposes Harrys value for theirefforts and time. He knows the value of time and understands the valueof acing all situations in the contest. Time is of immense importance because kit helps Harry become a bettermagician. The experience he gains here at the contest will help him inhis future as a complete wizard. For Harry, patience is a must, andwhatever he does he needs to be patient; whether one observes his lifewith the Dursleys or his period in the magical contest, Harry has tomature slowly. This helps him to become a better thinker who does notalways need to depend on magic. In spite of him knowing that he needs to be patient. Harry is facedwith little choice. He was told not to use his magical powers becauseit may not have been safe for him to do so. However, he had to do sobecause he had to defend himself. Fortunately, it all went his way fromthe beginning right till the fifth story of Harry in Harry Potter andthe Order of the Phoenix. Had the other students at Howgarts not been stubborn to study defensespells, they might not have been able to save themselves in the end.These students were aware of the corrupt Ministry of magic trying totake over the magic school; they knew that this ministry was notallowing the students to learn defense against their dark spells.However, studying defensive spells secretly allows the young magiciansto escape. They developed a secret study group just for the sake oflearning how to defend themselves and overturn any dark spell that theMinistry could put on them. Luna Lovegood asserts the inevitability ofconflict when she says No, I think Ill just go down and have somepudding and wait for it all to turn up. It always does in the end. Perhaps, they knew what was about to happen. The secrecy involved with learning how to overturn evil and cripplingspells is reminiscent of the way that people from the oppressed classwould go about formulating a plan to bring down oppressors. This is howa revolution is brought about. Undoubtedly, death and destruction isinvolved in the process, but after the clash, there is peace. In HarryPotter and the Order of the Phoenix this is what the students did whenthey secretly studied defensive spells together. They managed to stat arevolt; they were in a significant number to overthrow the oppressors,and managed to do so successfully. The best part about this plan isthat the oppressors knew little about it. The secrecy involved in theirpractice was in fact a weapon on its own. This helped the students takethe oppressors by surprise, as it should be in a revolt. They weresurprised because of the fact that their spells were not successfulwhen they were really relying on them to take control and maximizetheir hold on the students. The manner in which the students secretly studied the defense spellsspeaks for the power of knowledge; it is knowledge of the defensespells that helped them survive. It gave them power to survive. InHarry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix it becomes apparent toeveryone that education is in jeopardy because of the Dark Ministry atwork. Everyone knows that there is something bad going on, but there islittle that they could do. It is only thanks to a few individuals whohad good ideas that a plan was devised. The plan was devised andimplemented accordingly. Even though there were few working their waythrough, it made a whole lot of difference in the end. The value tolearn here is that even a few individuals with common sense and skillcan make a difference for a large number of people. This is because ifthey can manage their plans well and implement them without beinginterfered with there is a lot that can be achieved. The key is to keepit all a secret and not let anyone know anything a bout the plan. Bydoing this, there are greater chances of success because when no oneknows about a revolt, especially the enemy, there can be no actionagainst. The opposition would not know how to deal with it. They wouldnot even have time to deal with it when it does occur, and so, thismakes the chances of a successful revolt even greater. In addition to the Marxist secrecy observed in action against the DarkMinistry, there are particular rules that are given at the beginning.The Sorting Hat warns the students about standing together. It is theirunity that would prevent them from being defeated. The problem is thatthe housing system at the Hogwarts was the reason why they wereseparated into two groups . Fortunately though, Ron, Hermione, Ginny,and Neville are all in the same house as Harry. This makes it easierfro them to stick together. However, there is still a lot that theyhave to overcome because of the existing segregation that exists amongmany of the students. Inside the school at which they were studyingmagic as well as outside there was a lot of segregation and hostilityas well. The pure bloods wanted to have control, and they wanted totake control of the magic school so that only they would be educated inmagic. This would reinforce their control in the wider society as well.Obviously, they were not satisfied w ith the success that half bloodsand mudbloods had with doing magic. In addition to stories like Harry Potter portraying the manner in whichone class oppresses another in the way that the pure bloods oppressedthe half bloods, the mudbloods and the elves, there are other meansthrough which evil-doers accomplish their goals. There are evil-doersthat come under disguise too. They may appear to be average lookingpeople that the ordinary person may not be able to suspect, which isthe reason why they are most dangerous. Nobody knows who they are; theyare trusted all the way through their secret evil deeds, and often goon being undetected for years. Literature that reveals such is in thebook by Roald Dahl, called The Witches. In this book, the differencebetween the fairy-tale idea of witches and real idea of witches isrevealed. The witches by Roald Dahl is an interesting book that reveals the waythat people conceal their real personalities but still manage to getwhat they want. The book tells one about a seven-year-old boy who comesface to face with real-life witches. These witches are like no othersthat one reads about in a fairy-tale. The book reveals that witches arequite different to those funny or evil looking women dressed upunusually. No, witches are not those that have long ugly hair, wearpointed, tall hats, wear pointed shoes, have a black cat or fly aroundon a broom. Witches are those women living among us that seem to belike any other women: they all dress up the same way and look the sametoo. This makes it so difficult to trace them out. They have ordinarylifestyles and may have ordinary jobs too. The only thing about witchesis that they do not like children. They may, on the surface, pretend tolike children around them, but they actually hate them. They can bevery deceptive too, which is what makes them dangerous. Children may beable to detect it when a person does not like them for some reason.They may not even want to go anywhere near such women. However, someparents find that their children are being shy or just plain rude towomen when they do that. People do not actually read what a childsenses, and these feelings of a child are hardly ever wrong. This isbecause children do not react in such ways for no reason at all; therehas to be a reason for their fear or dislike of some women. Quite obviously, children would fear evil women because they know thereis really something to fear about them. According to Dahl, evil women(witches) are capable of going through great lengths in order to doaway with children. They are liable to perform any amount of evilspells to get rid of them for good. Children who know this, would dotheir level best to escape. However, Roald Dahl tells one about a childwanting to expose the existence of a witch before the witch disposes ofthe child. There are different angles from which one may look at Roald Dahls workin the The Witches. This is because as far as evil-doing isconcerned, it can be said that a state needs to be aware and informedabout evil-doers and those individuals that attempt to bring down astate. Especially those individuals that may be a part of a much largerorganization or class need to be taken into consideration. In view ofthis, it must be said that the witches in disguise are the ones to bewatched out for; there needs to be a great deal of awareness regardingthis issue. Looking at this book from another angle will reveal that there is needto be careful regarding concrete evidence against individuals. Anyindividual might be accused of evil-doing and be targeted. This wouldbe a dreadful situation if the public is stirred up for no rhyme orreason against any individual or group. However, in the light of proofbeing present to pin an individual down for perpetration, action may betaken. When a state is informed of any misdeeds or unusual action,there is first of all need for thorough investigation. It is throughthis investigative process that it can be determined what has to bedone in the next stage. If there is sufficient proof against an individual for wrong-doings,s/he may be taken into custody straight away. Individuals who havecommitted crimes in the past have particular patterns that arefollowed. It is on the basis of these patterns that they may be reasonto suspect them of evil-doing. When it comes to detecting witches in Roald Dahl and arousing suspicionabout them, one can say that those are first and foremost in dangerneed to be considered first. They are the ones that are capable ofhaving as much information as possible about witches and should betaken as seriously as possible. The spreading of knowledge aboutwitches is important because the more people know about it the better.This is not mere propaganda, but is awareness among people in a state . Another important point to note in The Witches is there is existenceof groups that may be measured by Marxist theory . Witches can beconsidered as one class or group as opposed to children. The childrencan be described as the targeted group while the witches can bedescribed as the oppressors. Since the children are the ones that aremost likely to be targeted, they need to watch out for adults,particularly women. The oppressor class does not necessarily consist ofa great many evil women, but there is need to be ware of who might beevil among the women. Conflicts may be generally the same through time because of the factthat the source of these conflicts lies in inequalities regardingresources. This is typically a Marxist view because Marxism holds thatthe basic reason for conflict and disharmony is inequality ofresources. When one class possesses more resources than the other,there is bound to be some form of conflict. This is because one classtries to dominate the other. Also, the class that does not have all theresources may be displeased and conflict with the class that has allthe resources. It is a well known trend that the class with all theresources dominates the class with fewer resources. Those with the power to dominate will do so, and this power to dominatecomes through the possession of resources. This is something that hasbeen observed in all parts of the Harry Potter books, as well as TheWitches by Roald Dahl. Those with the ability to be harsh or takecontrol will ultimately do so unless they are stooped. In Harry Potter,the readers observe that the oppressed magicians (the half bloods andthe mudbloods) finally manage to overcome oppression by the purebloods. In The Witches too, the 7-year-old boy manages to expose thewitches that were out to dispose of him. Adorno, Theodor. 1968. Is Marx Obsolete? Diogenes 64 1-16 Adorno, Theodor. 1978. Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda, The Culture Industry 114-35; Arato, Andrew Gebhardt, eds., 1978. The Essential Frankfurt School Reader Oxford: Blackwell, 118-137 Avineri, S. 1968. The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx Greenblatt, Stephen. 1978, Marlow, Marx, and Anti-Semitism. Critical Inquiry 5(2): 291-307. Kolakowski, Leszek. 1978. The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory341-95 in his Main Currents of Marxism, vol 3, trans. P.S. Falla.London: Oxford University Press. Lukcs, G. 1971. History and Class Consciousness Marx, Karl Engels, Frederick. The Communist Manifesto, 1848. Ollman, Bertell. Alienation: Marxs Conception of Man in Capitalist Society (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1971). Rowling, J.K. Dobbys Reward, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 1999. Rowling, J.K. The Beginning, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, 2000. Rowling, J.K. The Second War Begins, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, 2003. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, 2000. Rowling, J.K. The Man with Two Faces, Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone, 1997.

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Rostows Theory Of Economic Growth - 1507 Words

2 Rostow’s theory of economic growth (or Rostovian take-off model), is historically one of the major models of economic growth. Published in 1960 by American economist Walt Whitman Rostow, the model dictates that economic growth occurs in five stages of fluctuating time periods. The five stages include 1) the traditional society, 2) the preconditions for take-off, 3) the take-off, 4) the drive to maturity, and finally, 5) the age of mass production. The following definitions were established by Walt Rostow in his book published in 1960, The Stages of Economic Growth. The first stage, the traditional society, describes countries where the population is still actively engaged in agricultural practises, therefore eliminating any time available to undertake major economic and entrepreneurial risks. The technology and science in use is also described as ‘pre-Newtonian’. Examples of such societies include Medieval Europe and Chinese dynasties. The second stage, precondit ions for take-off, is explained as encompassing nations with a more stable political base. This stage was clearly established in Western Europe in the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century, as scientific advancements and continued industrialisation had aided agriculture and the capital market to thrive. The next stage is the actual take off stage, where new industries appear and agriculture is being commercialised. Steady growth is evident through the exploitation of natural resources,Show MoreRelatedWorld Theory And Wallersteins Stages Of Social And Economic Development731 Words   |  3 PagesThis essay attempts to compare and to contrast the theories of Walt Rostows stages of social and economic development and Wallersteins world system theory. The Rostows five-stage model of economic growth and core-periphery concept of Wallerstein’s three-part world system theory are both used to identify a countrys development. Although they have similarities, there are differences between the two models. Rostows five-stage model emphasizes on the development process of countries. On the otherRead MoreModernization Theory Of The Post War Years1324 Words   |  6 Pageswith growing fears about Cold War tensions and the threat of communism, the domestic post-war environment contributed to the emergence of the predominant American sociological and economic theory of the post-war years: modernization theory. Though many new theories have emerged since the development of modernization theory, of which Walt Whitman Rostow was one of the leading figures, and it has seen fluctuations in its popularity, it has remained a part of the discourse on development to this day.Read MoreEssay on Modernization Theory: The Development Ladder1270 Words   |  6 PagesModernisation theory has been a dominant theory since post-World War II (McMichael 2012:5) to describe development and social change. It is structured and outlined through five different stages of deve lopment ladder proposed by Walt Whitman Rostow in The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. (1961:4) The first premise of modernisation theory reflected by development ladder is that development happened in a sequential process through stage by stage while the second premise underpinnedRead MoreWalter Rostow’s Linear Development Theory2110 Words   |  9 PagesBSDS101: Assignment 1: Outline the stages of Walter Rostow’s Linear development theory and discuss the theory’s applicability to the developing world. Introduction: The question of why and how the developing world has since been developing at a relatively low pace has since been interpreted by various perspectives most of which are Euro-centric and highly debatable. A number of theories have since been formulated to explain why the developing countries are lagging behind in terms of their GrossRead MoreRostows Theory of Economic Development1055 Words   |  5 PagesE37/1523/2011 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ BARAZA A. DANIEL E37/1625/2011 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ LUMONYE FAITH JUMA E35S/11325/2010 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ DOUGHLAS NYAKUNDI E37/1509/2011 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ FREDDICK ACHACH E37/1614/2011 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Rostow’s five stages of Development This theory was written by Walt Whiteman Rostow. In 1960 he suggested countries go through fairly linearly and set out number of conditions that were likely to occur in investment, consumption and social trends at each state. He also saidRead MoreTheories of Development2183 Words   |  9 PagesCompare and contrast Karl Marx’s and Walt Rostow’s theories of stages of social and economic development. By Daniel C. Phiri, Lusaka, Zambia 28/11/2013 Introduction This essay attempts to compare and contrast Karl Marx’s and Walt Rostow’s theories of stages of social and economic development. A theory is an interconnected, logical system of concepts that provides a framework for organising and understanding observations. The function of a theory is to allow us to understand and predict the behaviourRead MoreDevelopment Theory And Walt Whitman Rostows Theory Of Development889 Words   |  4 PagesMODERNISATION THEORY Development is an abstract and subjective concept but the most popular definition of development is the betterment of human kind (Cowen et al., 1995). Walt Whitman Rostow in 1960 published a model which claimed that development in underdeveloped nations could occur in five basic steps: Traditional Society, Preconditions to Take-off, Take-off, Drive to Maturity, Age of High Mass Consumption. Due to Rostow’s fierce anti-communist beliefs, his definition of development resortedRead MoreImpact Of The Asian Financial Crisis Of 1997 On The Region s Development1704 Words   |  7 PagesII, development has been the most important term used to describe economic, social and political changes in what have come to be known as Third world countries† (Zhang, 2003). The Asian financial crisis of 1997 had a major impact on the regions development as it was the end of the East Asian economic miracle, a time that showed staggering economic growth throughout the Asia Pacific. However, despite evidence that the economic development has slowed down within the region, it can be argued thatRead MoreLiberal and Radical Approaches in Zambia1744 Words   |  7 Pagesstages to higher stages. It may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means (Harper, 1993: 13). It may refer to a model change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. According to Giddens (2000: 32), social change is defined as the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rulesRead MoreRostow s Theory Of Economic Growth997 Words   |  4 Pages Rostow’s theory of economic growth (or Rostovian take-off model), is historically one of the major models of economic growth. Published in 1960 by American economist Walt Whitman Rostow, the model dictates that economic growth occurs in five stages of fluctuating time periods. The five stages include 1) the traditional society, 2) the preconditions for take-off, 3) the take-off, 4) the drive to maturity, and finally, 5) the age of mass production. The following definitions were established by Walt